glossary (Wac - Wil)
The company L. Herout in Krems/ Austria is a associated company of the House Bailone. Bailonis Speciality: Marillen-Schnapps. The Marille (Austrian Apricot) belongs to the most valuable fruits used to produce fruit distillates and liqueur production. Herouot produces the Marillen-Blend "Wachau-whispering" (30 %).
It is a wildy growing foliage plant containing bitter principles and tannic acid and cumarin. It is used to create waldmeister - claret cup. Other word for it: common (greater) celandine.
Walker's de Luxe
Walker's de Luxe is an eight years old Straight Bourbon Whiskey from the Distillery Hiram Walker & Sons Inc (main product: Canadian Club), founded in Canada in 1858. It is produced in Peoria/Illinois, which is one of the biggest distilleries in the world. Alcohol content: 40 %.
The word Whisk(e)y comes from the Gaelic and is short for "Uisge Beatha" or "Usquebaugh". It is the same meaning like water of life, corresponding to Latin Aquavit (aqua vitae) and French Eau-de-Vie. Whisk(e)y is the most important grain-spirit and comes originally from Scotland and Ireland. In former times it was only made from barley and oats, but today wheat, corn and rye are also used for the production.
According to the Oxford-Dictionary both ways of writing Whisky and Whiskey are allowed, whereby the writing with 'e' originally differed the Irish whiskey from the scottish whisky. Today, the writing with 'e' is commonly used in Canada and the USA, but not always.
Regulations by law
Authentic Noble-Spirit from grain /(rye, wheat, barley, corn) with a minimum alcohol content of 40 Vol.- %.
Authentic Noble Spirits from grain are:
- Malt Whisky (Scotch) and
- Malt Whisk(e)y (Irich, Bourbon)
Thinnened Noble Spirit from grain with a minimum alcohol content of 40 Vol.- %.
Thinnened Noble Spirits from grain are:
- Import Whisk(e)y (Blended) and
- Whisky of Austrian production, at least 30 % of the alcohol content have to consist of malt, the rest is monopoly-alcohol.
Drink-Spirit from grain (rye, wheat, barley, corn) with a minimum alcohol content of 40 Vol.- %.
Following examples belong to it:
- German Whisky
- Scotch Whisky
- Canadian Whisk(e)y
- Irish Whisk(e)y and
- Bourbon Whisk(e)y
Drink-Spirit from fermented mash from seed-fruit (usually barley, rye or corn) with a minimum alcohol content of 40 Vol.- %. It differs from grain spirit by having a characteristical taste, which is caused through the nature of the raw substances, their treatment and production (especially by a slightly smoking for Scotch Whisky). Whisky of each kind has to have a origin document and a proof from the origin home country, when it is imported to other countries. The document has to prove an age of at least three years. Whisky can only be sold under the name of the origin home country.
Grain is sorted out depending on size, it is cleaned, soaked in water and kilns . the ferment Diastase starch is changed to sugar while this process, and the so-called green malt develops. This one is dried and shredded afterwards.
The shredded malt is mixed with hot water in mash-containers being stirred permanently. Sugar containing substances are dissolved from the rest of the mash in this process. Afterwards, this sugary liquid is separated from the thick malt-substances.
The spice is put into fermentation containers, which can take between 9,000 and 50,000 litres. By adding natural yeast, sugar is turned into alcohol and carbon dioxide (fermented spice). This is descriped as sweet- or mellow-mash-procedure. Besides the yeast, mash remains of the earlier fermentation are added to the spice, as well. Only American Whisk(e)y has a sign of the fermentation procedure on its label.
The fermented spice is distilled to Whisk(e)y, eiter according to the Pot-Still-Procedure or according to the Patent-Still-Procedure. These two methods of distillation are used in different ways.
Storage The distillate is filled into new oak-barrels or old Sherry or Port-wine barrels and should be stored there for at least three years. Top products are stored up to 12 years and even more.
Basically there is a difference between
Unblended Whisk(e)y, which is a pure product - Straight Whisk(e)y - Blended Whisk(e)y, which consists of Malt Whisk(e)y and Grain Whisk(e)y. Depending on the origin home country, following kinds are differed:
The home of the whisky is Scotland.
It is said, that the monk John Cor produced the first whisky-similar drink from barley malt 1294. In the early Middle Ages, this drink was known as being a remedy. Until the 16th century everybody was allowed to distill its barley without limits. But around 1550, a law was passed, which prohibited the citizens to produce whisky from 1. Oktober until 1. December. Excepted were Noble Men, which were allowed to distil "Aqua Vitae" from their own barley.stocks and only for their personal needs. At the beginning of the 16th century a whisky-tax was introduced. Two pennies had to be paid for each gallone (four and a half litres-amount). Those days, the so-called moon-shine distilleries developed, which were lonely situated moonlight distilleries. A few of them still exist today. According to the British tax-law only whisky produced in sCotland is allowed to be called Scotch. It has to be produced according to the set regulations for drink-spirit and according to a special procedure, and it has to be stored for at least three years. The storage happens in port-wine or Sherry-barrels. Top-products might be stored up to 30 years. The age mentioned on the label always relates to the youngest whisky-distillate, which was used for blending. Following whisky-producers of the production and world wide sale of Scottish whisky are still important today: the company Haig, Dewar, Mac Donald, Walker, Mackie, Buchanan, Smith, Teacher and Sanderson. Scottish Whisky is the only whisky with a smoky taste, which developes while the barley-malt is dried above open peat-fire. Furthermore the clear, spicy air and the smooth, clear mountain- and bog water are important for the quality of the Scottish whisky.
This is the original whisky. It consists of pure barley, which is malting. Therefore, it is a straight whisky (unblended product). Malt whisky is produced by being fermented twice in the Pot-Still-Procedure. Afterwards it is stored in oak-barrels or old Sherry-barrels or Port-Wine barrels for at least three years. Top-products are stored for 12 years and more. Straighth Malt Whisky is sold on the market under followíng names: Single Malt, Pure Malt, All Malt, Unblended Malt, Rare All Malt and Rare Old Malt. These descriptions are only allowed, when the malt comes only from one distillery, which means, when it is unblended. The descrption 'Vatted Malt' means, that whisky is produced from pure malt-whiskies, but these come from different distilleries. Different malt-whiskies are produced in different regions.
a) Highland Malt
This is a collective description of all products, produced in the north of the division, by Greenock in the west and Dundee in the east of Scotland. It has the most finest aroma of all malt whiskies and is therefore th best kind. The most known distilleries in the Highlands are Speyside, Glenlivet, The Glenlivet, Aberfeldy, Balmenach, Banffshire and Clynelish. A special of the Highalns's malt-whiskies is the Eastern Malt. It is characterised by a very strong peat-taste. To the Eastern Malt belong: Glenrothes, Tamnavulin Glenfiddich, Cardow, Glen Elgin and Highland Park.
b) Lowland Malt
This is a collective description of all products, which are produced as malt whisky bordered south of the TRNNLINIE, by Greenock in the west and Dundee in the east of Scotland. Lowland Malt has a lighter and milder peat-taste than the Highland Malt. Therefore, it is often used to be blended with grain whisky to get Blended Scotch Whisky.
c) Island Malt
These whiskies are produced on the islands Skye, Mull, Orkney, Jura and Islay. The Islay Malt Whisky is a special, because it is the strongest Malt Whisky atz all.
d) Campbeltown Malt
It comes from the peninsula Kintyre, where two very famous whisky-distilleries produce smooth, mild Highland Malt Whiskies with a slight peat-taste.
GRAIN WHISKY (GRAIN SPIRIT WHISKY)
It consists of different grain types (rye, oats) and is distilled continuesly in the Patent-Still-Procedure.It mainly comes from the Lowlands. Grain Whisky is mild and light and has little colour. It is mainly used to blend it (Blended Scotch Whisky). There are only a few grain whiskies, which are sold bottled on the market.
Irish Whisk(e)y is said to be already produced by Irish Monks in the 11th century. But the first is mentionened in a document is one in the 18th century. Therefore, the Irish whisk(e)y production is as old as the Scottish one. The difference is the basic substances used. Barley, wheat, oats and rye, sometimes also sugar-cane-molasses are used for production. Around the middle of the 18th century, nearly 2,000 distilleries produced whiskies in Ireland. Centres of production were Cork, Dublin, Belfast, Tullamore, Kilbeggan Kineadine, Lochrine and Dodderbank. At this time, two reputed Whisk(e)ydynasties were mainly responsible for the rise of Irish whisk(e)y. These were the Haig-Family from Scotland and the Jameson-Family from Ireland. Today, the whisk(e)y-production is centralised in Ireland. Close to Dublin, there is the central-distillery, which produces all Irish whisk(e)y products sold on the market according to the reciptes of their owners. Irish whisk(e)y is only distilled in the Pot-Still-Procedure by a three times distillation. The Pot-Stills (cooper-boilers) have nearly more than the double volume amount in Ireland than common in Scotland. These two aspects, the three-times distillation and the volume of the Pot-Stills are the differences to Scottish Whisky. The minimum storage time of Irish Whisk(e)y is three, mostly 10 to 12 years. It is stored in Sherry-, Bourbon-, Rum- or American oak-barrels of white oak. After storage, the whisk(e)y is blended from whiskies of different barrels. This corresponds to the so-called Vatted Whisky in Scotland. Excellent qualities having an individual colour and taste are produced this way. This blend is sold under the name Irish Whisk(e)y on the market. Irish whisk(e)y has a mild and salty taste as a Scotch, because here, like American and Canadian Whiskies, the malt is not GEDARRT above peat-fire. The last years , a new procedure was developed, because of the rising demand. Alcohol from other grain-kinds is now added to the barrel-ripe whisk(e)y while the mixing process. These products have to be described as Blended Irish Whiskies.
All in America produced Whiskies are called that way. In 1640, a certain Hendriksen is named in a document , who distilled whisk(e)y in the USA being ordered to do so by an Hollandish colony. Since the second half of the 18th century, bigger amounts were produced from Scottish and Irish settlers. While time passed by, not only barley was the basic substance, but also corn and rye were used, which grow perfectly in America, because of the perfect climate and soil conditions. Therefore, different whisk(e)y-kinds developed, like Bourbon and Rye Whisk(e)y. These whiskies have to be stored for at least three years. Usually they are stored in half-inside-burned barrels, made of 100 to 300 year old white oak. These barrels can only be used once. The most important and most known American Federal States, which produce whisk(e)y, are Maryland, Alabama, Kentucky and Tennessee.
AMERICAN STRAIGHT WHISK(E)Y
a) Rye Whisk(e)y is a distillate made from a mashed grain-mixture consisting of at least 51 % of rye. It is distilled in the Patent-Still-Procedure.
b) Bourbon Whisk(e)y is a distillate made from mashed grain-mixture containing at least 51 % of corn. It is produced in the Pot-Still-Procedure. Straight Bourbon Whisk(e)y is produced with an alcohol content of 40 and 62 %. The grain mixture should contain at least 51 % of corn and 79 % the most. American Straight Bourbon Whisk(e)y is distilled in the Pot-Still-Procedure, but only in a one-time distillation. It can either be produced in the Sour-Mash-Procedure or in the Sweet-Mash-Procedure (Mellow-mash).
Blended Bourbon Whisk(e)y is a mixture of different Bourbon Whiskies containing at least 51 % Straight Bourboun (unblended) Only Straight Bourbon Whiskies can be used to produce Blended Straight Bourbon Whisk(e)y. No flavour-essentials can be used. This blend is similar to the Scottish Vatted Malt.
AMERICAN BLENDED WHISK(E)Y
This type of whisk(e)y develops after the time of the Prohibition in 1934. It is ablend from corn- or rye whisk(e)y and grain-spirit (alcohol made from grain). Furthermore there is a special kind of Americvan Whisk(e)y, the White Whisky. It has been on the market since 1970. It differs in its writing (without 'e') from American whiskies. White whisky is a drink-spirit made from grain-mixtures. It is not stored in wood-barrels and soes not get any colour therefore, but stays water clear.
Canadian whisk(e)y is a collective description of all whisk(e)y-products produced in Canada, which usually are made from more than 50 % of corn, but barley-, rye- and wheat malt are allowed, too. The production of Candaian Whisk(e)y was started form English, Scottish and Irish immigrants at the beginning of the 20th century. Canadian Whiskies are only produced in the Patent-Still-Procedure. The continuing distillation is done twice. Canadian Whisk(e)y is blended with grain whisk(e)y straight after distillation finished; therefore it differs expressly from the other whisk(e)y-products. The minimum storage time of Canadian Whisk(e)y is four years. Good products are stored in oak-barrels up to 12 years. Production-distillery and growing areas of the grain-kinds, which are used to produce the whisk(e)y, are only situated in the south of Canada. Canadian Whisk(e)y is lighter in its colour than Scotch, Irish or American Whisk(e)y. It is also lighter in its alcohol content and is therefore often used to mix cocktails. Canadian Whisk(e)y is wrongly described as Rye Whisk(e)y in the world, although many Bourbons are produced in Canada, as well.
CANADIAN STRAIGHT WHISK(E)Y
a) Canadian Rye Whisk(e)y is a distillate of a grain-mixture, whose main-ingredient has to be rye.
b) Canadian Bourbon Whisk(e)y is a distillate of a grain-mixture, whose main-ingredient has to be corn.
CANADIAN BLENDED WHISK(E)Y is a distillate, produced from mashed and unmashed grain and blended with grain-spirit.
Whisky - Whiskey
Whisky is a grain-brandy with a typical smoky taste. Its home is Scotland. Until today, some of the most famous whiskies in the world come from Scotland. Scotch Whisky is distilled from barley malt, which kilned above peat fire. Whiskey comes from Ireland, Bourbon from America, which is made from corn. Following categories describe distillation-history and tradition for the most important whisky-countries in the world.
Whisky of other countries
Whisky is produced in many countries besides the one mentioned here. The biggest producers amongst these countries are Japan and Australia. Japanese Whisky is produced according to the Scottish example. But it does not reach the high quality of the Scottish whisky; and is therefore only important in Asian areas. In Australia, which was settled by English and Scottish people, the whisky-production started in the 20's of the century. But the home-production could not compete with Scottish products. Other countries, being whisky-producers, are hardly important. Sometimes, the whisky is produced through blending Scottish malt and home-made alcohol. Partly, cheap aroma- and raw products are used too. These "Whiskies" have nothing in common with the original product but the name.
The Scotch Whisky White Horse got its name from an Inn in Edinburgh and dates back to 1742. The "White Horse Inn" was named after a white horse, on which Queen Mary passed by the Inn. The history of the White Horse Distillery started on the Islay Island around 1742. Those days, it was distilled in ten small buildings, so-called "Bothies" in secret and far situated places to avoid tax officers. The Island and its difficult access was a perfect place for these secret activities. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Graham-Family took over the small distillery and around 1850, John Cogan Mackie became partner of Captain Graham. Their distillery, which was known as "Lagavulin" (Gaelic meaning of "hole in the mill"), was renovated, expanded and improved essentially. When John Mackie retired from the business in 1890, his nephew Peter Mackie took over the management of the company. He was educated as a distiller in Lagavulin, and the company became successful under his management. He was the one, who had the idea of White Horse. Peter Mackie built up a wide-spreading export business and was also involved in the grant of a law, which prescribes a three-years storage time for whisky. In 1924, Peter Mackie died, two years before the great success of White Horse: the introduction of the screw-top. Consequence of the new sensation was the duplication of White Horse sales in England within six months. In 1927, White Horse joined DCL, becoming one of the big five of the company. Today, White Horse produces besides its own whisky, the 12 Year Old Logan de Luxe, the Single Malt Lagavulin and the Pure Highland Malt Glen Elgin. Exported to Germany are: the standard product White Horse Fine Old Scotch Whisky (40 %), 12 Year Old Logan de Luxe Scotch Whisky (40 %) and Glen Elgim Pure Highland Malt Scotch Whisky 12 Years (43 %).
Whyte & Mackay
In 1844, the Scottish James Whyte and Charles Mackay started their whisky-company in Glasgow. Reason for their success was their "Blend-Formula": It blended 35 Highland Malts (including Islay Malts) with selected grain whiskies. The amount of malt was very high. This blend whisky became known as Whyte & Mackay Special. In 1972, the company was taken over by the Scottish and Universal Investment Trust. This Group owned malt-distilleries itself, including the famous Dalmore-Distillery. In 1979, this Group merged with Multi Lonrho / London. Whyte & Mackay is known as being one of the finest and smoothest Blended Scotch Whiskies by experts world wide, therefore it is a top-product on the Scottish market. The secret of success: The whiskies of Whyte & Mackay are still produced according to original blending methods today, probably being one of the last ones. One of the method is the "Double Marriage", a two times blending, which was improved from the Whyte & Mackay blend masters over the decades. Usually ripe-stored malt whiskies are "wedding" each other, and are stored in barrels for another six years afterwards. Then they are blended with grain whiskies and is followed by the bottling-process immedately. But Whyte & Mackay, like in the old good times, the blended whisky is transported back to its old barrels, where it can mix each other while being stored for some time. After this time period, it is bottled and not earlier. This is a method, which adds a lot to the smooth and round taste. Exported from Whyte & Mackay to Germany are: Special (40 %), de-Luxe 12 Years Old (40 %) and Blended Scotch Whisky 21 Years Old (43 %).
Williams & Humbert
The history of the company Williams and Humbert Ltd. Jerez/ London dates back to 1877. Those days, Alexunder Williams founded a Sherry-company together with his brother in law, Arthur Humbert. The company is still in the family's possession. Exported from Williams & Humbert to Germany are: Spanish Sherry-Original Bottled Dry Sack, Pando, Canasta Cream and Cedro. The "Dry Sack" is offered wrapped in a jute-sack; in former times, this wrap was moisturised to cool the product inside. The dry, light yellow "Pando" was originally bottled for the shipping company "Peninsular and Orient-Line" (short P and O). The ripe and fruity "Canasta Cream" got its name from the wine-harvest basket used by the south-Spanish people.
It is green with red patches, fully ripe it is yellow with red flesh, smaller kind of fruit and basis for the Williams-Christpear-Spirits.
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