glossary (Smo - Sou)
Smoke- or tobacco products
Smoke-products are offered in every bar. Besides the usual cigarettes there are also cigars, which can lead to the reputation of theinstitution. Displays or cards, where the offer of cigarettes is written down, are means to get the attention of the customer. There are service companies, which acorrespond to the special needs of the gastronomy and therefore offer e selected group of it.
Christoph Columbus brought the cigar to Europe already in 1492. But it nearly took 300 years until the cigar became a luxury food. At the beginning it was only smoked at the royal Houses, especially in Spain and Portugal. Later, it became the symbol of wealthy people, who sent people to Cuba to chose the best leaves. Still today, Cigars coming from Cuba, the so-called Havannas, are apreciated as being the best and noblest. When Fidel Castro run the government of Cuba, he nationalised the production of cigars. He thought there should be only one cigar, the "people's cigar" insteadt of 960 different types. A few of the disspossessed owners of plantations had to intoexile to America (Virginia, Florida) to the Philippines and Canarian Islands and Orient. Today, the biggest, in former times private possessed but now under the controll of the state companies again produce a big amount of the products, which were known before the time of Castro.
The Tobacco-plant is offered nearly everywhere in Cuba. The ebst leaves come from the region of Vuelta Abajo in the province of Pinar del Rio. The especial warm climate of this region makes the plant grow slowly and continuesly. Less rain makes the tobacco sweet, and the minerals of the sany soil cause the special taste of the leaves. This region produces 21,000 tonnes of tobacco each year. In the east of Vuetta Abajo Semi-Vuelta is situated. The leaves of this region have less bouquet. Other growing areas are Partido (Red Soil), Remedios (in the centre of the island) and the East. But there productions are of less quality. Besides the island of Cuba there are other producing cigars of good qualities, like Brazil, Mexico, Jamaica, Philippines and the Canarian Islands. But there are also producing companies also Austria and Germany, Switzerland, Holland and France.
Strength of Cigars
The grow of tobacco need carefullness. The planters prepare the sol already months before sow. Five to eight days after the AUSSAAT the seeds open. After about 40 days, the branch piqued. About one month later, the first signs of ripening are recognizable. The leaves are dim green in the beginning, but soon they become lighter and more shiny and lose their down. It still takes another few weeks, until the tobacco turns dark. The colour of the tobacco shows the strength of the cigar. The darker the colour the stronger the taste. But it is a mistake to belive, that dark cigars contain more nicotine. The big companies produce tobaccos in different colour-nuances. Treatment of the leave and fermentation are the most important things of the production process. Sumatra is known for light, Brasilian for dark tobacco. Diverted from the Havanna, following colours and strngths are differed:
Oscuro: The nearly dim black tobacco developes through especially very long fermentation. It is very strong, but does not have much perfume. Today it is hardly produced. Maduro: The black-brown leaves are mostly these ones, which grow underneath the top-leaves of the tobacco-plant. Therefore, they are protected from the intensive sun. Its taste is strong, its perfume very intense. Maduro Colorado: They are dark brown and not that strong like Oscuro- and Maduro - tobaccos. But the perfume is as strong as the other kinds.Colorado: The middle-brown tobacco is similar to the other already mentioned kinds, but its perfume is even more intensive. Colorado Claro: This is the end of the tobacco-list, which are harvested after ripening. Colorado Claro Tobacco are light brown and a bit lighter than the Colorado-type. Claro: To produce Claro, the leave is harvest before it gets ripe and is dried in the air. The "tobacco-yellow" cigars are appreciated for their fine aroma amongst the so-called 'Lights'. Doble Claro (Clarisimo, Claro-Claro): The leave is also harvest before it is ripe for this green tzype of tobacco. The pale colour developes because of the quick drying above wood-fire. It is very light and is preferred by beginners. It is especially appreciated in the USA. It dries much faster than all other cigar-types, therefore it cannot be stored for a long time.
The way from the harvest leave to the finished cigar-product is very long. First, the leaves are taken to the drying-hut, where they shall loose their water. The most common methode is the air-drying. Especial care has to be taken for the weather conditions. The drying in the sun can only happen, when the whole plant is harvest. The sun-drying is folled by the air-drying process only a few days later. Drying through the use of fire, therefore the drying through synthetic heat, is usually only used for Doble Claro. But the fire-drying has "enemies", that say, that the tobacco looses the spice, parfume and smoothness. Fermentation follows the drying process. There the leaves are freed from nitrogen-connections and resins. The leaves have to be bundles at humate weather conditions. They got brittle while being stored in the hut for drying, to avoid breaking them it is important to follow the bundling in humate weather. The bundels are stacked and covered with palm tree leaves or light textiles all around. In the middle of the stack, the temperature starts to raise causing the start of fermentation. It takes about two months. Afterwards, the tobacco is ready to be sorted out and wrapped. It is sent to the factrories to be treated furthermore, where it si storeds for another one to one and a half years. The next step of production is the wetting of the leaves with special soapy water, which is produced from tobacco-branches. After one day is is taken out of the soapy water to sort it out again and to classify it. The leaves are basically divided into covering leaves and in loose leaves. There are subcategories depending on colour, thickness and others in each of these categories. Before it is wrapped, the second fermentation takes place. To ensure a regular fermentation, the leaves are turned now and then.
Following step is the "industrial" treatment, starting with the so-called "Ribbers". Their work is to spearate the middle rib from the leave. The unribbed leaves are pressed and afterwards, they are added to the third fermentation process. It can last up to ten years. The tobacco works itself in this time. After the thjrd fermentation finished, the mixer starts his/ her work. These specialists have to find the same aroma for their cigar-products each year. Their choice of tobaccos is wetted and mixed with each other in a box. When the boxes are reopened after a while and the cigar-maker start their work, the parfumes of the single types of tobaccos have come together to one fine bouquet. The tobacco meant to be cigar-inside leaves (filler), are rolled and a binder leave is put around it. The covering leave is rolled around this "nymph", which is fixed with a special-glue. The hand-made cigar is replaced through the maschine-made one especially in America. But the maschine-made one is said to be of less quality, especially because of its thick covering leave, which is necessary for the maschine-production. The finished cigars are bundled to 50 pieces and stored in a cedar-wood-cupboard for about one month, where they loose its moisture. Now they are differed into Claro to Maduro depending on their colours. A cellar with an air-moisture of between 60 and 67 % and a temperatuiure of between 20 and 25 degrees would be perfect to store the cigars. But usual there are hardly conditions like this, therefore there is the help of a synthetic moisturer. A glass-pipe, open at both ends, containing a permanent wet sponge, is placed in the box of cigars. The evaporation causes a convenient atmosphere inside of the box.
Fasson is the size or silhouette of a cigar. There are different types of fasson in each product-type. The classical and most popular fasson is the one of Corona. Diverted from the basic-model of Havanna, following fassons are differed: Half-Corona: its length is seven to eight centimetres. It is available in all colours.
Small Corona: It is a bit bigger than Half-Corona, being nine centimetres.
Corona: The mouth-piece of Corona is round and closed, the lightning end is cut straight. It has a length of about 13 centimetre, which is said to be perfect. Its diameter is counted that way, that only that much smoke can passes it, than a real smoker wants it to be to get the right perfume and spice.
Dobble-Corona: It is the longest of the Coronas being 20 to 24 centimetres long. It also passes the biggest amount of smoke possible. Churchill preferred the Dobble-Corona, which sometimes is called like the big English premier to honour him.
Perfecto: The cylinder-shaped body of Perfecto gets thinner in the area of the mouth-piece, which is half-sharp and closed. The lightning end is either sharp and closed (1) or cut off (2). The length of Perfecto is nine to twelve centimetres.
Lonsdale: Its shape is similar to the one of Corona, but the diameter is smaller and it is longer with 15 to 17 centimetres. The lightning end is cut off, too and the mouth-piece is closed.
Panetela fina: The mouth-piece of this about 12 centimetres long cigar is round and open. The lightning end is straight, the body slim.
Panetela: It is thicker than Panetela fina and its length is 10 to 11 centimetres.
Demi-Cup: The body of Demi-Cup is very similar to the one of Corona and of Lonsdale, but it is only 10.5 to 11.5 centimetres long. It is available in all colours, having a round and closed mouth-piece and being cut off straight. In Germany, it is also called "curved dog". Three Culebras, plaited with each other, are offered on the market.
Stump: This kind of cigar is common in Switzerland, apart from that it has little importance. Lightning end and moth-piece are open.
Virginia: Its home is Austria and Bavaria, but it is produced in the American State Virginia. It is very slim and 20 centimetres long. A blade is put inside of the filler, standing a centimetre out of the "nymph", to get a better smoke-result. The lightning end of Virginia is open. It is a very nicotine-rich cigar.
Virginette: The small "sister" of Virginia has an entire length of 14 centimetres.
Cigarillo: It is the modern form of Pantelea, but mostly shorter. Cigarillos are available with or without a mouth-piece.
On 1st July 1864, Johann Jacob Sohnlein and his six business partners asked the federal government of Nassau for a permission to found the "Rhinegau Sparkling Wine Factory" in Wiesbaden-Schierstein. On 27th July 1864, they got the permission and already in their first year the sparkling wine sale was pretty successful. Johann Jacob Sohnlein accidentally met Richard Wagner that year. Because of the meeting with the composer Sohnlein had the idea of calling his sparkling wine "Rhinegold"; therefore in 1865, the first German sparkling wine product was born. Sohnlein bought the wine of his Rhinegold Sparkling Wine from Prince from Metternich's main castle Johannisberg. In the 70's of the 19th century, the German sparkling wine industry had its first boom. In 1900, counsellor of comerce Friedrich (Fredric) Wilhelm (William) Sohnlein took over the management of the vinter's business. In 1912, his father Johann Jacob Sohnlein died. The following years, the company grew despite war and inflation. The plants were improved and expanded. The production process was improved and refined several times. A big change was made in 1926: On 1st July the banderole tax was introduced, being one Reichsmark per 1/ 1 bottle of sparkling wine. The sale dropped because of the now more expensive product, but in 1927/ 28, it went up again until the economic crisis in 1929. The lowest point of the company was in 1931, with a production of only 210,000 bottles. In December 1933, the sparkling wine tax fee was abolished. In 1934, Sohnlein made a contract with the castle of Johannisberg, which still regulates the relation of the two Houses together today. The start of the war in September 1939 reintroduced the sparkling wine tax. Again, it was one Reichsmark per 1/ 1 bottle and in November 1941 it went up to three Reichsmark. Finally, on 1st November 1952, it was abolished and replaced by a sparkling wine tax of one mark per bottle. At that time, the sparkling wine market started all over again; and the raise of the House Sohnlein, too. The production rose from 800,000 bottles in the year 1952 to 4.6 million 1/ 1 bottles in 1958, when the House was taken over from the heirs of Sohnlein by the Oetker-Group. (In 1978, Sohnlein produced more than 40 million bottles.) Available from Sohnlein are: Sparkling Wine products Brillant and Brillant Red Sparkling Wine are offered after being stored for at least nine months; Rhinegold is a dry sparkling wine with an origin description, it is made from Rhine-wines to 100 % according to prescriptions of the wine-law; Red Gold is a mild flowery Red Sparkling Wine, partly made from Rhine-Red-Wines as well; Johann Jacob's Old Excellence Extra Dry is composed from extra chosen Rhinegau-Rieslings; Johann Jacob's Assmannshause's Late-Burgund Red Sparkling Wine is made from the Burgund Vine Pinot Noir, which grows in Assmannshausen.
Drinking water with carbon dioxide (4 g/ kg) filled up airright into siphone bottles or containers or 0,2 Liter bottles with a crown cork or 1 Liter bottles with a screw cap. Soda water may also be produced in Heimsiphone-bottles with carbon dioxide.
New American expression describing non alcoholic drinks. Opposite: Hard Drinks.
This is the name of a several years Sherry-mature-procedure, where younger wines are blended with older ones again and again.
Expression of wine-waiter.
It is biological preserved white egg kept in sprayers, produced in America, similar to Frothee.
Is another word for Cherimoya.
Is another word for Tamarind.
To be found in the Bourbon-Whiskey-production, meaning that parts of fermented mash together with a rest amount of yeast will remain to start the next fermantation.
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