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glossary (Sch - Sha)


Sal-Sch Sch-Sha Sha-Smi Smo-Sou Sou-StR StR-Str Str-Sug Sug-Syr

The American Schenley-Group produces and sells spirituous liquors. Besides home-made products the Group also has got an assorted import-program. The Schenley-Family possessed a bigger sized land property close to Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania and built a distillery there in 1892. The distillery was named after the family and whiskies, like 'Schenley', 'Old Schenley' and 'Schenley Pure Rye' were produced there; all of them were known for their qualities. When the distillery was closed while the Prohibition-time in America, Schenley only kept one licence, which allowed the production of whisky on a "medical purpose". In 1923, Lewis Rosenstiel, born in Cincinnati/ Ohio in 1891, bought the Schenley-company. Furthermore he bought three more distilleries, which were closed at that time, as well. Rosenstiel strongly believed, that the 'Prohibition' will end soon. He started to prepare for that day. He bought shares of different distilleries and also bought stored whisky, where ever he could get it. He organised good sellers and got exclusive rights for the sale of imported spirituous liquors and wines. His future orientated plan worked out: In December 1933, the Prohibition ended, and at that time the Schenley Distilling Corp. was a well-organised big company, most possibly with the biggest stock of aged whisky in the US. Schenley went on expanding and bought the 'New England Distilling Company' in 1935, which was the world-biggest producer of industry-rum. In 1938, it bought the 'Bernheim Distilling Company' with its popular products: I.W. Harper and Old Charter. Rosenstiel also caused a big change in the law: The change now allows to store the whisky up to 20 years as being the ripening process without paying any tax. This is a perfect condition for the US-whisky producers to compete with expensive imported products. The Schenley Group set up a world wide net of distilleries and sale-offices. Schenley was bought by Glen Alden Corp and was sold again to the Rapid American Group in 1972.

Sixtus Balthasar Schladerer did not know in 1813 how important the House Schladerer and its products would become one day. He lived in Bamlach at the Upper Rhine, close to Basel, having a home distillery, lying there were hundreds of them everywhere. He worked on his own in the distillery. His son Sixtus went to Staufen in Breisgau in 1844 (this year is also said to be the year of foundation of the company Schladerer), to take over the "Kreuz-Post" (Cross-Post), which was a reputed Inn, situated in Badisch Oberland. From the beginning, Sixtus Schladerer cared about the art of distillation. Many guests of the "Kreuz-Post" took a bottle of self-distilled "Chriesiwater" back home. When Alfred Schladerer took over the business in the third generation, he focused on expanding the home-distillery, which was the main thing, he was interested in. Since 1956, the company has been administered by Greta Schladerer. Distillery, bottling rooms and mash-storage halls are set on an area of more than 29,000 square metres today. Four million litres of tank-space is provided for the fruits. Specialities of the House Schladerer can be bought in about 40 countries in the world. Schladerer-products are: Raspberry-Spirit, Apricot-Spirit, Blackberry-Spirit, Blueberry-Spirit and Blackthorn-Spirit. All have an alcohol content of 42 %. Authentic Black Forrest Cherry Water with an alcohol content of 42 % and Authentic Black Forrest Cherry Water 'Chriesiwater' (50 %), which is extra ordinary old and stored in barrels. William's pear and Noble Apple-Spirit, each containing 40 % of alcohol. Mirabelle, Plum-Water (Pflueml-water) and Zibartli (Zibarten-spirit) contain all 42 % of alcohol. Schladerer furthermore offers: raspberry liqueur (30 %) Guinch-liqueur (25 %), Noble Cherry (28 %), Cassinora - Black Currant (28 %), Apricot - Brandy (30 %) and Maraschino (30 %). "Fruits á la Schladerer" are: cherries and cherry water, raspberries and raspberry spirit, blackberry and blackberry spirit. All fruits contain 16 % of alcohol.

It is written in old documents, that the company Schlichte distilled Steinhaeger (for sale) already in 1840. Henry Wilhelm Schlichte, living in Steinhagen those days and being a "Commerciant and Spirits-distiller", owned a special distilling house, different to the common ones. There is a document of 1821 already mentioning these buildings. Therefore it is possible, that professional distilling relies on a long-term experience in House-distilling. The rising demand, brought the change from the old House-distillery to a professional business. In 1847, the train-track Collogne-Minden close to Steinhagen was opened for the traffic. It made it possible to send bigger amounts to the customer on an easy way and also to get raw products cheaper and much quicker to Steinhagen. The Rheinian-Westfalian industry-region was a perfect first sale-region having such a high population. Today, Schlichte Steinhaeger is appreciated and consumed in more than 50 countries. The House Schlichte was the first company after the war, which introduced Steinhaeger-stone-jugs (instead of the common clay-jugs). Short it is called "Kruke" in Steinhagen. The green granulated glass-jug is protected by law for the company H.W. Schlichte. Besides the main-product, the Original Schlichte (38 %), Schlichte also produces: Old Harvest - Schlichte's Noble Distillate (38 %), Wheat Thaler - Noble Dobble Wheat (38 %), Grain Spirit Thaler - Noble Dobble Grain Spirit (38 %), Juniper Thaler - Noble Double Juniper (38 %), Wheat Spring - Wheat-Grain Spirit (32 %), Grain Spirit Spring - Grain Spirit (32 %), Juniper Spring - Juniper (32 %) and Vodka Stroganoff (40 %). The Original Schlichte is the oldest Steinhaeger-product on the market. A new speciality from Schlichte is the 32 % Black Grain Spirit Spring made from juniper and herbs.

Scotch Whisky
Since many centuries, whisky is distilled in Scotland. Old documents show, that already Christian monks brought the art of distillation to the country. But the oldest historical proof is of a later time. It is a registration in the documents of the Scottish Treasure Office of 1495 with the following text: "Eight Bollen Malt for Brother Cor to produce Aqua Vitae". One of the oldest signs of "Uiskie", so the writing those days, appeared in the list of spending of a funeral ceremony of a land lord, who lived in the Highland around 1618. The expression "whisky" originally comes from the Gaelic word "Ulisge Beatha" or "Usquebaugh", both mean something like "Aqua Vitae" (water of life). Gaelic is a dialect from the Scottish Highland and Highland was the region, where uncountable distilleries worked those days. In 1643, it was tried for the first time to put a tax on whisky-products. But the distillers did not like it and the tax was simply ignored. They went on distilling illegally using small and easy moveable distilling apparatuses without problems. The time of moonlight distilleries and whisky-smugglers had started. The tax officers were not very lucky to catch the moonlight workers in the unknown region. But the illegality brought one problem to sell the whisky. Distillers had to transport the precious liquid over the hills at "night and fog". When in 1707, England and Scotland united, there was even less moot to pay the tax fee to the disliked English people. The Scots thought, that the tax fee was an intervention with their right of personal freedom. The more the whisky was asked for and became popular, the more there were distillers not paying the tax. Around the middle of the 18th century, more than 400 illegal distilleries worked in the Highland and on the lonely islands at the coasts of Scotland. The fight between distillers and tax officers lasted 70 years until 1823, when the influential Scottish Duke from Gordon convinced the Upper House to introduce better tax-laws for his country-people. The first distiller, who asked for a licence, was George Smith in 1824. His Glenlivet-Distillery still exists today, having an excellent reputation. Outside of Scotland, the strong, smoky whisky of those days was not paid much attention to. This changed, when Robert Stein invented the Patent-Distillation-Apparatus in 1826. His procedure was improved by Aeneas Coffey in 1831. From that time on, whisky could be produced faster, in bigger amounts and less costs, without depending on water, peat or weather conditions. Around 1860, Andrew Usher from Edinburgh discovered the combination of malt and grain whisky. The today's Blended Whisky started its successful way throughout the world. But it was a way of obstacles, because the malt whisky producers fought against the smoother blended whisky. For a long time they argued, that only unblended malt whisky should be sold as Scotch Whisky. In 1905, the fight went to the government, which appointed a royal commission. This commission decided in 1909, that Blended Scotch made from Grain Whisky could also be sold as Scotch. Two kinds of whisky are produced in Scotland.: Malt- and Grain Whisky. 119 of 133 distillers produce malt whisky. These distilleries are again divided into two big subsidiary groups: the Highland- and the Lowland Distilleries. The border of the two groups is a imaginary line, which starts in Greenrock (30 kilometres north-west of Glasgow) in the western part of the Island, and which ends in Dundee in the east. Most distilleries (about 98 %) are situated in the Highland. Production of Malt Whisky: The basic substance is always barley, which has to sprout first. This is called "malt" in the professional language, where it got the name 'Malt Whisky' from. This process is interrupted by drying it above rising peat fire, to create the typical smoky taste of the malt whisky. The dried malt is grimed, mixed with water and yeast is added to start fermentation. The liquid is distilled twice in copper boilers, which are shaped like onions. These boilers, the so-called Pot-Stilles, do not look any different than a hundred years ago; and a few distilleries still use the original boilers from the time of foundation. In the pot-still-process, the distillation procedure does not go continuously, which means, that the boilers are filled again after the end of one distillation. Water-quality is an aspect, which determines the quality of the malt whisky. Not every water is suitable to produce malt whisky. It should always be absolutely clean, clear, especially smooth spring-water. The quality of the malt, drying process above peat-fire, size and shape of the copper-boiler, handicraft of the distilling master and the barrel as well at the ripening-time, are very important, too. When the fresh distilled malt whisky is filled in a barrel, it is hardly similar to the product, which will develop in 10, 12 or 15 ripening-years. The years totally change the whisky. It becomes smooth and the taste develops. The whisky becomes better, the longer it is stored in the barrel and there is no way to shorten the procedure. It is clear, that three things are main important: the whisky itself, the barrel, where it ripens in and the climate, where the ripening process takes place, because oak barrels are not air-constant. Whisky evaporates through the pores of the wood. Air gets through the wood and changes the type of ripening. In former times, old Sherry-barrels were often used for storage. But these barrels were rare and became fairly expensive. Only a few distilleries still use them. While the storage, all substances, which make the young whisky hard and aggressive, evaporate. The barrel adds the colour to the whisky, because fresh distilled whisky is, like any other distillate, totally colourless. Malt whisky needs about ten years barrel storage to lose all unwanted substances in its taste. It is always the task of the blending master to decide, when this perfect point of time has come. There are only a few whiskies, which still become better afterwards. The description 'Single' or 'Pure Malt' means, that the whisky is distilled, filled up in a barrel and bottled straight after ripening time. Single or Pure Malt always comes from one distillery only and is not mixed among each other in any way. Pure malts saying '100 % Malt' are not whiskies, they are so-called 'Vatted Malts', which means malt whiskies coming from different distilleries. Most malt whiskies are not bottled, but sold to companies, which produce Blended Scotch Whisky. Nearly 99 % of the today's produced whiskies are sold as Blended Scotch on the market. Grain Whisky is needed to blend. It is distilled from malted and unmalted barley in a continuing distillation, which is a process, that can produce bigger amounts because it is more economic. The grain is stored in oak-barrels like malt whisky is. A grain is basically lighter (smoother) in its character and taste, but also has characteristics, which are typical for whisky. The mixture of malt and grain is called "Blending" or "Marriage". This procedure has been used since 1860. One of the most important, if not even the most important, man in a distillery is the Blend-Master. His nose makes the decisions. There are distilleries everywhere in Scotland, each producing whiskies, which theoretically can be blended with each other, but it is the art of only blending those whiskies, which harmonise with each other in the mixture, but are still able to show their own best and specific characteristics. This may sound easy, but some blends are made from up to 40 different grains and malts to get the wanted product. When a Blended Scotch is created once and found to be a good one, there is nevertheless no recipe of its composition, because whisky is a 100 % natural product and therefore slightly changes in its taste may occur. The Blend-Master has to check on his blend whiskies now and then again to correct the mixture's relations. The names of the used whiskies and the value of the mixture are kept secret strictly. Blended Scotch Whisky has to be at least three years old. A sign of the production-year of a Blended Whisky must be the age of the youngest used whisky, no average of all whiskies should be listed. More than 2,000 different Blended Scotch are available on the world market today, but only a few internationally known kinds define most of the market. Scotch Whiskies available in Germany usually contain 40 % of alcohol.

Seagram's 7 Crown
Seagram's 7 Crown and Seagram's 5 Crown are two whiskeys, which were offered in 1934 for the first time. They stayed on the market until world War II started. Both Blends were the results of a theory by Sam Bronfman, who was the president of "Distiller's Corporation Seagram's Ltd.": Most distillers produced pure straight Bourbons or pure Rye-Whiskeys those days. Bronfman studied the market and found out that blended whiskeys should have a good chance. He was right: soon after the Crown-Whiskeys were introduced to the market, already more than one million boxes of it were sold in the same year. But before the business got to its summit, Bronfman had to face a few problems. One of the most difficult ones was the so-called 'war of the label's backs'. Regulations by the government demanded, that distillers had to print certain information about their products on the back of the label, for example the amount of neutral alcohol of Blends like 5 and 7 Crown. America's straight whiskey-producers tried to turn down the reputation of Crown-Whiskeys into being bad replacements, by especially mentioning in their commercials that only a straight whiskey is the 100 % whiskey. Seagram's commercial answered on the other hand by informing the customers of the huge stocks of aged whiskeys and by explaining, that blends are not produced, because there is a lack of supplies of new whiskey. Shortly before World War II Seagram changed the design of 7 Crown. 7 and 5 Crown have always been sold in clear square bottles, they have also been recommended in commercials together and stand side by side in the shelves. But it was realised, that 7 Crown had a better reputation. The label was changed, the number "7" was expressed stronger. Furthermore 7 Crown was sold in round, amber coloured bottles. In 1941, the design of 5 Crown was changed, as well. When the US entered the war, Seagram decided to stop the production. 5 Crown was sold, out of the stock, until 1946, but the production did not start again. Whiskey was hardly available, which, of course, helped Seagram. 7 Crown was on the market on its own now; and it was possible to keep the same reputation on the market, which the two products have had before. 7 Crown became No 1 in America. Until today the 40 % - 7 Crown is the most sold whiskey in the US and the biggest spirituous liquors product in the world. More than 100 million bottles are produced yearly by the distilleries working for 7 Crown. The biggest distillery is in Lawrenceburg/ Indiana.

The history of the world's biggest spirituous liquors group dates back to 1880. Those days, the Bronfman-Family left Europe to move to Canada. Yechiel Bronfman breed horses, bought a small hotel, followed by others pretty soon; and he also started to trade with spirituous liquors. When Yechiel Bronfman died in 1919, his son Sam went on to continue the activities of the family in the spirituous liquors business. When Canada's provinces introduced the 'Prohibition' for retailers, Bronfman sent his spirituous liquors via posting. This was legal and soon his mail order sale was very successful. At the beginning of the 20's, the province's governments took over the spirituous liquors trade in their own direction. The posting business stopped. Bronfman decided to produce himself. He built a distillery in La Salle, which is a suburb of Montreal. He also founded "The Distiller's Corporation Ltd.". In 1928, he bought the shares of the Joseph E. Seagram & Sons Ltd, which was a Family company founded in waterloo/ Ontario in 1857. The new company, merged from the two, was called "Distiller's Corporation Seagra,'s Ltd", before it became the today's known "Joseph E. Seagram & Sons". Sam Bronfman expanded the company during the end of the US-Prohibition was close. He rose the production and built new storage halls to store corresponding amounts. After the Prohibition. Bronfman was the one, who had the biggest stock of stored whisky. Everything was ready to be send. This business-policy was successful. Until today, the USA is the biggest market of Seagram's. He added one after another production plants and areas to the Distiller's Corp. Seagram's Ltd. by world wide buying ups and participation. An international net of production, sale, distribution and administration developed. When Sam Bronfman died in 1971, he left the biggest spirituous liquors group in the world. Besides the production belonging to Seagram's (like Chivas Regal, Mumm, Myer's Rum), four whiskies are available under their own names in Germany. These are: V.O., 7 Crown, Crown Royal and 100 Pipers.

Describes dry Champagne, dose is of about 17-35 grams per litre.

200 years ago, on 1st August 1787, Wilhelmine Christine Freifrau from Seldeneck took over the "Badische Brauerei zu Karlsruhe-Muhlberg" brewery. Having a look to the books of the company, it is for sure, that at least since 1791 drink-spirits have been produced in this brewery, as well. Until 1900, the company was run under the name "Freiherrlich from Seldeneck - property administration" in Muhlberg, before it was changed into a joint-stock company named "Muhlberg Brewery, vorm. Freiherrlich from Seldeneck's Brewery". Main sharers were Wilhelm Freiherr from Seldeneck and his children. A few years later, they bought the "Mollhof at Gengbach" situated in the Black Forrest, where noble spirits were produced, as well. When the "Muhlberg Brewery" was sold in 1921, the son of the Freiherr went on working on the property "Mollhof" and sold the distilled cherry-spirits, which was produced there under the name "Freiherrlich from Seldeneck's cellars". Distillation was his agriculture second business. But when the business became successful, Hans Freiherr from Seldeneck bought a wine wholesale business together with a fruit distillery in Genglibach in 1925. After his death, his widow registered the business in the trade-register and handed it over to Herbert Jay from Seldeneck, who run the business, even after it was turned into a Ltd. Available products from Seldeneck are: Black Forrest Raspberry Spirit, Authentic Black Forrest Cherry Water, Black Forrest Mirabelle and Black Forrest Plum-Waters (all kinds contain 45 % of alcohol). Furthermore available is William's pear with 40 %.

Seven Up
It is a water clear, sparkling lemonade, produced in Canada and America. Close to the product Sprite.

This is a fruit similar to the grapefruit but bigger and more bitter in its taste.




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