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glossary (Mar - Met)


MA-Mar Mar-Met Mil-Mèt

Marc (Trester)
Marc is a spirit, which is distilled from the grape-remains of the wine-pressing. The quality is very different, it does not only depend on the type of grape used but also from vintage, distillation and storage. Furthermore important is, whether red or white wine marc was used. When red wine is produced, fermentation happens before the pressing process, therefore the marc can be distilled imeadetly after the pressing. But when it is produced from white wine remains, peelings and seeds (stones) have to be mashed and fermented before distillation. Marc-spirits are prescribed to have an alcohol content of 38 %. Wine-marc spirits are called Grappa in Italy, but marc in France and Switzerland, and Trester in Germany. It is differed between region and wine-types, like for example Marc de Champagne, Marc de Bourgogne, Marc de Spicetraminer or Marc de Provence, Marc from Portugal is called Bagaceiro. There is also marc from stone-fruit, but they only have less importance.

'Marc' is the name of marc-spirits from France. These strong, dry-bitter distillates are also called "wine grower's schnapps". They have been known since the 15th century, when wine growers in France and Italy had the idea to distil their own schnapps out of the pressed remains of their grapes, which is called marc. The 'poor-people-drink', what it was at the beginning being private schnapps, turned into a speciality for Gourmets in the world, having its quality improved and a description of origin added. After the grapes are pressed the cider is used to produce wine; the remains, like peelings, stalk and seeds are filled into air-resistant barrels to be fermented. There is an important difference between white wine and red wine marc: to produce red wine, the remains of the pressing-procedure cause the colour of the wine and the typical red wine acid. Therefore red wine marc can be distilled directly. White wine marc has to be mashed and fermented first. The fermented mash is, like in any other distillation, heated up; the alcohol becomes steam and is caught to be turned liquid again. Pre- and Post run are separated, only the "heart" of distillation drips out of the distilling apparatus: this is the water clear, high percentage spirit. And there is also one main important issue at Marc's as well as any other distillation: the more carefully produced the better is the product. The distillate is stored in wood barrels until it reaches its ripeness. The art of distilling Marc is to leave the characteristics of the basic wines as pure as possible. Every wine area in France has its own typical Marc. The most known and popular ones are the aroma rich Marc de Bourga-Ogne, especially the Marc of Romandée - Conti among them; Musiguy; Chambertin or Montrachet. One of the lightest Marc comes from the Champagne, having a characteristically finesse. Exact prescriptions were set in 1942 as well as state-quality-control to produce it. Like Champagne, Marc is only allowed to be made from the three allowed vine types: Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay. The Champagne law "Quality before Quantity" caused a few characteristics of Marc, which differ it from other marcs. For example, when Champagne wine is pressed, the amount of cider per 100 kilograms of grapes is exactly prescribed, the cider is only produced from the grape's pulp. Stalks, peelings and seeds are not pressed with it. The fermentation of the marc in big containers is carefully overlooked; the distillation takes place in steam working distilling apparatus; ripening happens in oak barrels.

Are sour cherrys.

This is the expression of Austrian Apricots. Meant is the stone fruit of the apricot tree coming from Central Asia. The fruit is used to produce fresh juice and nectar and claret cups/ punch. You can also get it stewed. English Apricot, French Abricots, other words: Aprikosen, Barillen.

For a long time the Sicilian Marsala has been known as Italian wine in foreign countries. For thousands of years, wines have been growing on Sicilia, they were already appreciated in the old Greece. The first Greek colony on Sicilia around 650 B. C. was therefore the main place for a big wine-trade in the south-middle Mediterranean. The name Marsala dates back to the Arabian Foreign Rule. An especially secured and safe landing place for ships was "Marsh al Allah" - Port Allah. While centuries passed the description turned into "Marsala". In the little part of Marsala, the English John Woodhouse landed with his ship Brigantine in 1773. Woodhouse, who was an experienced businessman from Liverpool, found out a certain similarity between the Sicilian wines and the dessert wines from Xérés, Madeira and Portugal, which ruled the English market those days. Another English man, called Benjamin Ingham, became the pioneer of Marsala. He, together with his nephew Withaker, expanded the export, favouring the American market. The start of the revolution wars in the 18th century disturbed the rising Marsala trade. The seaways were blocked, the Mediterranean Countries became places of terrible battles between England and France. The English fleet, which was under the command of Admiral Nelson, landed in Sicilia. Nelson liked the Marsala wine so much, that he made a delivery contract for his officer's meetings of the whole fleet. Base of the Marsala wine is a typical aromatic, dry white wine, which grows on the hot, dry and much iron containing soils of Marsala and Trapani, situated in the west of Palermo. A mixture of one forth of brandy (which is distilled of the same wine) and three forth of wine made from slightly dried grapes is added to these wines, to raise the alcohol content. Thirdly fresh, unfermented cider is added to the wine; the wine is slowly heated up (but not boiling), becomes thick-liquid until it lost about 60 % of its liquid and nearly gets colour and taste of burned sugar. After all three parts are added and it has been stored for a certain time, the Marsala is finished. It is a rich, strong wine, straw-yellow to dark nut brown, having an undefinable dry taste on a sweet base. While becoming older, Marsala wines may become even better by winning more aroma. Marsala is produced in four different tastes: Marsala Fine is full and slightly bitter; Superiore is sweet; Vergine is dry and Marsala Speciale is very aromatic. An Italian speciality is "Marsaluovo". The idea of it dates back to 1875. Marsala is mixed with a creme of egg and alcohol. Marsaluovo contains about 20 % of alcohol and is said to be a typical product of the Italian liqueur industry.

Jean Martell, whose family has lived on the Isle of Jersey since the Middle Ages, moved to Cognac in 1715. He bought the plots and buildings along Charente from Gatebourse. It was supposed to become the main centre of the company Martell. Jean Martell died in 1753, leaving a successful and still growing company of good reputation to his wife and two sons. Madame Martell took over the business. In 1767, she founded, together with her sons Jean and Frédéric, a new enterprise. After the death of their mother, Jean and Frédéric named the enterprise "Jeanet Frédéric Martell", what became short "J & F" in 1807. Although there were times of riots under the ruling of Napoleon I and his ordered continental blockade, the company Martell was able to stay represented on the trade markets and even to improve their place there. Since Jean Martell had left the Island of Jersey to found his Cognac company, eight generations of his family successfully administered his heritage. And still today, there is a family character in the company of Martell & Co. There are many leading employees, whose ancestors had seen the start of the company. For example the cellar master François Chapeau, whose family has been working for the company for six generations; or the technical director Alain Filiol de Raimond, who is a direct descendant of a very close employee of Jean Martell in 1772. Martell is not a simple trading company. Its activities can be categorised into four different areas: The Martells are wine growers: the family owns many vineyards in the best regions, and knows all problems about growing wine. Furthermore they are distillers: owning or controlling 21 distilleries in the four best regions, where their own or other wines, bought from other wine growers, are distilled. 18 further distilleries deliver a part or all of their production to Martell. Martell is also producer: the production of Cognac, including the choice of the region, the harmonically mixing and overlooking the ageing process needs a lot of money and long experience. The main producing plants of the company Martell almost seems to be a town itself, situated in the heart of Cognac. The plants are situated in an area of about 150,000 square metres. Parts of it are storage halls, blending halls, cooperage, bottling plants and the management department. 750 employees work there. There are a few more halls everywhere in the Charente-area. All included the whole area is about 300,000 square metres. More than 110,000 Cognac barrels are stored in the storage halls. Finally Martell is also a trader: being represented on 172 markets in the world. The export is about 90 % of the whole sale. To insure all its needs and interests on the world market, Martell built up a net of representatives. A part of these agencies have already existed for a long time: since 1820 for example in Liverpool and Bristol, since 1833 in London, since 1849 in New York and Philadelphia. Even in far regions like Newcaledonia, Tasmania or the Pacific Islands Martell opened agencies. Cognac Martell is exported to almost all countries in the world, therefore it has to be arranged with the taste of the different customers. There is a big variety of designs, for example 86 shapes of the bottle and more than 5,000 means for a different look and packaging as well as thousands of model-labels in all languages. The whole production is bottled in a four storey building. About 200 people bottle up to 200,000 bottles of all sizes in a big hall daily. Four automatic bottling plants for smaller bottles (amount is up to 35 centi-litres) fill up 3,000 bottles in an hour, rising up to 5,000 bottles if only mini bottles are filled up. Martell products available in Germany are: Grande Fine V.S. - a cognac with a fine, light character (40 %); Medallion V.S.O.P. - made from cognacs, which have more volume and a bigger bouquet because they are ageing longer than the others (40 %); Cordon Blen - a cognac for high demands. Cordon Blen became a synonymous for Martell-quality. (40 %). Cordon Argent Extra - an extraordinary cognac based on old wine distillates, which are especially fine and rich (43 %).

Matheus Miller
In 1811, 38 years old Matheus Miller bought the "Freiherrlcih from Sohlern's House" situated in Eltville, which is the today's operating place of the company Matheus Miller Limited Partnership. Miller was appreciated as being a wine-expert in Rheingau, where he was a directorial chief for wine growing at the agricultural institution Wiesbaden. In the same year, he founded the Company Matheus Miller, being a vinter's business and wine-shop. Matheus Miller was one of the first people living at the river Rhine, who started to produce sparkling wine together with his sons Matheus Junior and Frederic Franz, who have been excellently educated in France. Already in the 50's of the last century, the starting letters of the founder's name were written on the labels, which are the two M, which are still the symbol of the house today. Shortly after the pass of the trade mark law in 1894, the Millers registered different MM-product-signs and labels at the royal patent office. Main products of the House are today: "MM Extra", which was already created around 1890, followed by the red sparkling wine "MM Solitaer" a bit later. In 1913, the company changed its form from being a open trading company to a partnership limited by shares. In 1917 MM bought the Sparkling Wine Cellars Brother Hohl, Geisenheim, which was founded in 1868. In 1930, the management and production of the Hohl-company moved to Eltville. The management of the House MM is still, in the sixth generation, in the hands of the founder's family. MM-products are: Extra Dry, a dry, fine-fruity, lively sparkling wine having a fragrant character; Blue Red - Extra Dry, in its taste a bit steely, made form frutiy acid, its extra dry character is caused by the use of Saar-Riesling Wines; Solitaer - Red Sparkling Wine, it is round and lovely, its mild, smooth character is caused by the strong, extra-rich quality wines from France and Italy.

Wet Extraction. It is a description of a production method of alcoholic drinks. A sieve is placed into a container containing alcohol and substances, that are meant to aromatize the alcohol. The alcohol is transferred slowly through this sieve by a procedure called circulation operation removing special substances of the aromatic mixture. Fernets and other Bitter is produced with this method.

There are two different groups of melon, on the one hand sweet melon on the other water melon. Fruits belonging to the category of sweet melon are: Pineapple melon (smooth melon) with a smooth skin and green pulp, Honeymelon, also called net melon, with yellowish green pulp and net pattern on the skin, Cantaloupe melon.
To the category of water melon: (their pulp is mostly light red or pinky and the skin is dark green), Sugar Baby (very sweet), Crimson Sweet (with stripes on the skin), Charentals (smooth, yellowish green).
A new kind of it is the Ogen melon that is growing in Israel, belonging to the category of sweet melon with very juicy sweet pulp.
Fresh fruit is also used for decoration of Cobblers and claret cups/ punch.

Description of an oversized bottle of Champagne. The amount is about 8 times of a normal bottle.
Often used to describe the age of the Champagne.




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